The terms Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) and Exchange-Traded Product (ETP) might seem interchangeable, they actually represent distinct categories of investment instruments, each with its unique characteristics, advantages, and considerations. While these instruments are traded on an exchange and provide exposure to shares and other assets such as indices and commodities, there are a few important differences in terms of complexity and risk.
ETPs are a broader category that encompasses a number of investment instruments. The ETPs cover a wider range of products such as ETFs, Exchange Traded Notes (ETNs), and Exchange Traded Commodities (ETCs). Therefore, ETFs are a subset of ETPs.
ETPs are best defined as open-ended investments listed on the exchange and traded and settled like shares. Open-ended means that the number of units on issue can increase or decrease in response to demand and supply. ETPs are passive investments aiming to replicate the performance of a given market, generally by tracking an underlying benchmark index and usually trading at or close to net asset value (NAV).
Exchange Traded Funds
ETFs are open-ended funds that track an underlying index, commodity, or a basket of assets and are regulated in Europe under UCITS (Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities). ETFs offer the diversification benefits of mutual funds with the added advantage of real-time trading on stock exchanges. They are generally considered to be lower risk due to its diversification and asset backing.
In order to achieve their investment objectives, ETF providers can either use physical or synthetic replication. Physical replication can be achieved either through full replication or optimised sampling. When using synthetic replication, ETF providers enter into a swap agreement with single or multiple counterparties. Synthetic replication generally reduces costs and tracking error but increases counterparty risk.
Exchange Traded Commodities/Currencies
ETCs are similar to ETFs and offer the same advantages; however, they track the performance of a single commodity or a basket of commodities. In order to achieve their investment objectives ETCs either use a physical/spot approach or futures contracts. Unlike ETFs, in Europe ETNs are not regulated under UCITS, which makes them somewhat less stringent in compliance.
The main difference between ETFs and ETCs is that the later are debt securities instead of funds. The debt instruments are underwritten by a bank for the issuer of the ETC and the commodities tracked by the ETC serve as collateral for the note.
The capital invested in an ETC is not a fund asset which is protected in case of insolvency of the issuer. Commodity ETFs invest directly in and hold physical commodities, while ETCs don’t buy or sell the commodity or futures contract directly. The assets of the ETCs are a debenture issued by a bank, collateralized by the commodity the ETC tracks.
ETC are generally riskier than ETFs due to potential counterparty/issuer risk.
Exchange Traded Notes
ETNs are generally senior, unsecured, unsubordinated debt issued by a financial institution and listed on the exchange. They are not asset-backed but are supported by the creditworthiness of the issuing institution, therefore, adding credit risk. The underwriting bank agrees to pay an index return, minus fees. ETCs are not subject to UCITS and do not have to comply with its diversification requirements. These products are generally riskier than ETFs and ETCs due to the credit risk and lack of asset backing.
There are two types of ETNs: namely collateralised and uncollateralised notes. Collateralised ETNs are hedged partly or fully against counterparty risk whereas uncollateralised ETNs are fully exposed to counterparty risk. Investors should therefore make sure they fully understand the underlying risk of the ETN before investing.
Sandeep joined Leverage Shares in September 2020. He leads research on existing and new product lines, asset classes, and strategies, with special emphasis on analysis of recent events and developments.
Sandeep has longstanding experience with financial markets. Starting with a Chicago-based hedge fund as a financial engineer, his career has spanned a variety of domains and organizations over a course of 8 years – from Barclays Capital’s Prime Services Division to (most recently) Nasdaq’s Index Research Team.
Sandeep holds an M.S. in Finance as well as an MBA from Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago.
Julian joined Leverage Shares in 2018 as part of the company’s primary expansion in Eastern Europe. He is responsible for web content and raising brand awareness.
Julian has been academically involved with economics, psychology, sociology, European politics & linguistics. He has experience in business development and marketing through business ventures of his own.
For Julian, Leverage Shares is an innovator in the field of finance & fintech, and he always looks forward with excitement to share the next big news with investors in the UK & Europe.
Violeta joined Leverage Shares in September 2022. She is responsible for conducting technical analysis, macro and equity research, providing valuable insights to help shape investment strategies for clients.
Prior to joining LS, Violeta worked at several high-profile investment firms in Australia, such as Tollhurst and Morgans Financial where she spent the past 12 years of her career.
Violeta is a certified market technician from the Australian Technical Analysts Association and holds a Post Graduate Diploma of Applied Finance and Investment from Kaplan Professional (FINSIA), Australia, where she was a lecturer for a number of years.
Oktay joined Leverage Shares in late 2019. He is responsible for driving business growth by maintaining key relationships and developing sales activity across English-speaking markets.
He joined Leverage Shares from UniCredit, where he was a corporate relationship manager for multinationals. His previous experience is in corporate finance and fund administration at firms like IBM Bulgaria and DeGiro / FundShare.
Oktay holds a BA in Finance & Accounting and a post-graduate certificate in Entrepreneurship from Babson College. He is also a CFA charterholder.
Terms and Conditions
If you are not classified as an institutional investor, you will be categorised as a private/retail investor. At this time, we cannot send communications directly to private/retail investors. You are welcome to view the contents of this website.
If you are an ‘Institutional investor’, you affirm either that you are a Per Se Professional Client, or that you wish to be treated as an Eligible Counterparty Client, both as defined under the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive, or an equivalent in a jurisdiction outside the European Economic Area.
The value of an investment in ETPs may go down as well as up and past performance is not a reliable indicator of future performance. Trading in ETPs may not be suitable for all types of investor as they carry a high degree of risk. You may lose all of your initial investment. Only speculate with money you can afford to lose. Changes in exchange rates may also cause your investment to go up or down in value. Tax laws may be subject to change. Please ensure that you fully understand the risks involved. If in any doubt, please seek independent financial advice. Investors should refer to the section entitled “Risk Factors” in the relevant prospectus for further details of these and other risks associated with an investment in the securities offered by the Issuer.
This website is provided for your general information only and does not constitute investment advice or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any investment.
Nothing on this website is advice on the merits of any product or investment, nothing constitutes investment, legal, tax or any other advice nor is it to be relied on in making an investment decision. Prospective investors should obtain independent investment advice and inform themselves as to applicable legal requirements, exchange control regulations and taxes in their jurisdiction.
This website complies with the regulatory requirements of the United Kingdom. There may be laws in your country of nationality or residence or in the country from which you access this website which restrict the extent to which the website may be made available to you.
United States Visitors
The information provided on this site is not directed to any United States person or any person in the United States, any state thereof, or any of its territories or possessions.
Persons accessing this website in the European Economic Area
Access to this site is restricted to Non-U.S. Persons outside the United States within the meaning of Regulation S under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). Each person accessing this site, by so doing, acknowledges that: (1) it is not a U.S. person (within the meaning of Regulation S under the Securities Act) and is located outside the U.S. (within the meaning of Regulation S under the Securities Act); and (2) any securities described herein (A) have not been and will not be registered under the Securities Act or with any securities regulatory authority of any state or other jurisdiction and (B) may not be offered, sold, pledged or otherwise transferred except to persons outside the U.S. in accordance with Regulation S under the Securities Act pursuant to the terms of such securities. None of the funds on this website are registered under the United States Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the “Advisers Act”).
Exclusion of Liability
Certain documents made available on the website have been prepared and issued by persons other than Leverage Shares Management Company. This includes any Prospectus document. Leverage Shares Management Company is not responsible in any way for the content of any such document. Except in those cases, the information on the website has been given in good faith and every effort has been made to ensure its accuracy. Nevertheless, Leverage Shares Management Company shall not be responsible for loss occasioned as a result of reliance placed on any part of the website and it makes no guarantee as to the accuracy of any information or content on the website. The description of any ETP Security referred to in this website is a general one. The terms and conditions applicable to investors will be set out in the Prospectus, available on the website and should be read prior to making any investment.
Leverage Shares exchange-traded products (ETPs) provide leveraged exposure and are only suitable for experienced investors with knowledge of the risks and potential benefits of leveraged investment strategies.
This website is maintained by Leverage Shares Management Company, which is a limited liability company and is incorporated in Ireland with registered offices at 2 Grand Canal Square, Grand Canal Harbour, Dublin 2.
By clicking you agree to the Terms and Conditions displayed.